Posts Tagged ‘review’


October 11, 2013

This Craft Beer Bible is an infrequent review of American Craft Beers that I enjoy. Often but not exclusively, sourced from The Ship in a Bottle

Actors: Brooklyn Brewery 

Plot:  Brooklyn Brewery has rekindled this age-old recipe first utilized by industrious early American Pilgrims, who employed the plentiful root vegetable in cooking and brewing. This beer is a new, seasonal treat and the pumpkin beer does not disappoint. The beer is available from August to November, clocking up at a very moderate 5%. Brooklyn’s website recommends it as “The perfect beer for holiday dining, roasted ham and turkey, root vegetables, macaroni and cheese, mascarpone and Thanksgiving dinner.”

Conclusion: A very palatable lager with a hint of pumpkin spice. I was completely unaware of this beer style although other beers I have tried have bestowed spicy flavours which are subtle here. However the real success of Brooklyn is their ability to try new styles while always keeping it simple in ways that (much more daring but not always as pleasing) contemporaries such as Goose Island and Flying Dog* don’t.  Brooklyn Beer is the Man Utd of American Craft Beer, albeit under the Sir Alex Ferguson Era.  Other seasonal Brooklyn favourites include Brooklyn’s Chocolate Stout 10% which comes to the fore around the Yuletide period.

*The Flying Dog Imperial Pumpkin Ale is a huge miss and if I would have tried that first it may have put me off the style completely. Overpowering and aniseedy & a hefty 9%.


5 LP’s of 2013 pt1.

July 28, 2013

Arbitrary list of music albums ordered by preference during the Roman calendar year MMXIII

This article could be summed up in a single tweet. (Don’t read this tweet if you don’t like spoilers or tweets.) But why use 140 characters when 1400 will do? I don’t know the answer to that question. My top 5 albums of 2013 up to July? That’s not really phrased as a question but I’ll answer it anyway.

5. Foxygen, with their mandible-mangling title ‘We Are the 21st Century Ambassadors of Peace & Magic’ alluding to the glorious, psychedelic years of so long ago. By all accounts the band have gone their separate ways and left the world with one, well crafted album and nothing more. The album is highly derivative, or if you prefer a wonderful homage.

defunct buzz-band

I became aware of this album in January during an early year dirge and while a valiant effort and worth checking out I can’t imagine it’ll be in my top 5 by the end of the year. While it doesn’t pull up any innovatory trees. It certainly appreciates on further listens like a Californian IPA. You can read a much more in-depth review of the album below.

4. Local Natives’ Humming Bird is a sweet, heartfelt pop album as the title indicates. The breezy, opening channels The National ‘Boxer era’, featuring subtle lyrics and strong vocals from Taylor Rice.

music to sip flat whites to

“Powder in your hair
Staples in your jeans
Fireworks in the water
You were holding
A styro-foam cup
Held between your teeth
Telling me how you’re going to outlive your body”

The band have garnered favorable comparisons with “Arcade Fire, Fleet Foxes, and Vampire Weekend,[5] as well as “sort of a West Coast Grizzly Bear.”[6]According to Wikipedia.

Definitely hitting the Grizzly Bear circa Veckatimest spot on this year’s list.

3. David Bowie – The Next Day. The long-awaited 26th album from Britain’s greatest Artist/Chameleon/Cultural icon. Delete as applicable. It’s better than the later era of Bowie’s oeuvre. Better than I had reason to expect it to be. Benefiting from the unexpected arrival, without much fanfare, during early spring when there was little else to touch it. A sterling 3 star effort from Elder Ziggy.

Full of self-referential allusions to a living legend.

Bowie is acutely aware of his own importance to British culture. Like many great artists he draws heavily on his earlier works in ‘The Next Day‘.


2- The National sweep into second spot with their pessimistically titled ‘Trouble Will Find Me.’ This is not the easiest album to write about, 6 albums in and you pretty much know what you’re getting from Ohio’s favourite maudlin, song-smiths.  Featuring melancholic lyrics (if I had to guess I’d say he’s recently broke up with someone but then all of their albums sound like that.) delivered with Matt Berninger’s lauded, marble baritone (-Ed).  It’s perfect, rainy-day, bus-music  and I’ll leave it at that. The album cover is pretty cool though.

Children of Israel

1- Vampire Weekend have definitely taken it up a gear with their third album ‘Modern Vampires of the City.’ With standout singles like Diane Young, Ya Hey (that’s Hey Ya! backwards!) & Unbelievers, VW have managed to maintain their radio-friendly sound while easily surpassing anything that they’ve previously produced.

‘Modern Vampires of the City’ contains elements of chamber pop, prog-rock and Judaic inspired lyrics, With references to Zion, Unbelievers, Israelites, this Orthodox girl and er …Falafel. In fact Vampire Weekend have created the best mainstream, Hebrew influenced album since Youth by Matisyahu.  Also they win the award for most stylish stage set design. Mazel Tov!


Where Are We Now?

January 24, 2013

“Where Are We Now?” is the first single from Bowie’s 24th album entitled ‘The Next Day.

Where Are We Now? is the first single from the forthcoming David Bowie (or Bowie) album The Next Day.

The song seems to be from the perspective of an insecure Bowie speaking to a youngster today. The purposeful omission of his face from the artwork is a  direct challenge to those below a certain age. Do they remember him? Would they know that the image on the album cover is him?

 “Had to get the train / from Potsdamer Platz / you never knew that / that I could do that / just walking the dead,”

The original image is from Bowie’s (in)famous Berlin era, namely 1977’s Heroes – the second installment of the Trilogy.

This was a period in Bowie’s life when he was reportedly running around Berlin with Iggy Pop consuming drugs, drink and people of either gender. But it was also a time of unmatched musical creativity.

Thankfully ‘Where Are We Now?’ is a step away from ‘Eighties Bowie’ and much more stripped down. On first listen I was unmoved but the song has a mark of genius about it, it’s subtle and poignant but most importantly catchy. The simple bridge is unbelievably basic but is arguably one of Bowie’s best of recent times.

The lyrics and video are unabashedly centered around late 70’s Berlin, featuring Brandenburg Gate; the Dschungel nightclub,  Potsdamer Platz railway station; the Reichstag among others.

The video conjures up the image of Bowie’s fragmented, mind during the 70’s – the disembodied heads/Puppets sitting in a cluttered studio apartment surrounded by half completed items representing manic creativity. While a video image of Berlin passes by. The opening shot of a discarded diamond is perhaps a reference to Diamond Dogs.

However Berlin has grown older and become a lot more stable, much like Bowie himself, it has changed. Gone is the Wall, in have come Europe’s hipsters.

Perhaps David Bowie is hoping to tap in to the wave of popular culture like he has done successfully so many other times. Or is Bowie the original Berlin Hipster?

“Sitting in the Dschungel/ On Nürnberger Straße,”

The Money Store – Death Grips (Epic Records)

December 16, 2012

tumblr_m7e1ulr6QJ1qjpnsmThe album of 2012 is The Money Store by Death Grips.  It’s a chaotic, turbulent and an uncomfortable listen on first digestion. Perfectly representing a year of  financial and economic uncertainty, political unrest across the world and yadda yadda. Oh yeah and the Mayan Apocalypse…

Death Grips have had a pretty mad year. Getting signed to Major Label Epic Records then getting subsequently dropped for giving away their album for free on file-sharing sites behind the labels back. This band epitomise punk subversiveness  and self-destruction as exemplified by the outlandish album artwork.

As a novice/fraudulent music critic its’ hard for me to verbalise my thoughts when it comes to why I like a band. “Sound that” is usually adequate for most. The good thing about  Death Grips is probably nobody knows what they’re talking about when describing them. Probably not even the band.

The Money Store is like smashing a light bulb into your wrist. Or musical MDMA if you prefer, immediately dangerous sounding and infectious.

It’s a stretch to call this genre of music anything, least of all electro/rap/rock so I won’t bother. Basically
it’s an angry sounding black dude shouting over a barrage of sound effects, samples and a relentless wave of percussion. And it’s fucking great.

The best three songs are the stuttering, bass-beating call-to-arms “Get Got”,  the soulful, cruising (in the context of the album anyway) “I’ve Seen Footage”  and the paranoid, relentless album closer “Hacker.

The Top 5 Records of MMXII / 20:12

August 31, 2012

The year of our Lord: MMXII or 20:12 if you’re digital. What follows is a brief appraisal of the years musical offerings to the fickle hydra that is music. Lay down your first-born at the Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan.

Where are we? Ah yes. Music. Follow me…

Beach House – Bloom (Sub Pop)

Ethereal. Otherworldly. Dream Pop. Which means? Beach House have created a fantastic summer record made for lying on the grass and staring at a clear blue sky. Alternatively it can be enjoyed through headphones sitting next to the patio door, pining, as the great British summer pours from the grey heavens.

The title ‘Bloom’ conjures up Nirvana’s ‘In Bloom’

‘Bloom’ can be seen as the evolution of the surf-rock revival fad a few years ago, bands such as Wavves, Best Coast, etcetera. Yet it is the wiser, more grown-up brother to the anarchic stoner punks that preceded it.

The record has a euphoric quality which is summed up most perfectly in ‘Lazuli.’ – (which I sounds a bit like ‘Life in a Northern Town‘)

Django Django – Django Django (Because Music)

“Our name has absolutely nothing to do with Django Reinhardt”,

Django, Django, Django, Django. Are they named after four Gypsy, digit-impaired musical maestros? Well apparently not.

The band occupy a new wave of ‘geek-rock’ along with  proceeding band (*spoiler warning*) alt-J, therefore a seemingly impenetrable name is de rigueur.  Add to that a flourish of obscure lyrics and occasional smatterings of computer-related sound effects and you’ve kinda got the idea. The band stroll down a path previously paved by fellow-Scots Franz Ferdinand & non-fellow Scots  Hot Chip.  The stand-out single is the stomp-box, computer-inspired pop-song ‘Default.’

The band have an experimental avant-garde sound combined with radio-friendly tunes akin to the *excellent* Beta Band.

2012 has been without a doubt the year of the disastrous sophomore album. Either critically or commercially or any -ally that actu-ally matters. To list but a smattering – Santogold, Marina & The Diamonds, Sleigh Bells, The Temper Trap, Miike Snow & Best Coast. Have all either been shite or failed to meet expectations. I won’t review what I haven’t heard but reservations remain for The xx’s follow-up along with *shudders* Mumford & Sons upcoming record.


***Death Grips review here*** 


Grimes – Visions (Arbutus) AND  Purity Ring – Shrines (4AD)

“Cut open my sternum and pull my little ribs around you,”

Yes two albums for the price of one, i.e. nothing. Due to the limited space I’ve imposed upon myself by arbitrarily declaring this the five best albums of 2012 so far, I’ve had to economise. And with what style. These two albums are perfect bedfellows. Furthermore I gather the two artists are pals. Perfect.

“Grimes is easily my favourite artist of the year. Her often wonderfully haunting vocals over such well produced tracks works so perfectly to me.” – @loluke

Grimes’ album is a mix of dirty ethereal electro, the grimey (urgh) beats are contrasted starkly with Claire Boucher’s sweet vocals.  The album is hard to pin down and therefore I won’t.  Safe to say ‘Visions’ is highly progressive and Grimes is one of the shining lights of the ever blossoming Montreal music scene.

Purity Ring’s offering is slightly more upbeat-pop than Grimes’ effort, but by no means is it Passion Pit levels of accessibility. Your Grandparents wouldn’t approve. Comparisons can be drawn with The xx at their most voluminous. The titles of the songs are reminiscent of  newspeak from George Orwell’s ‘Nineteen Eighty-Four’ (Grandloves, Belispeak, Crawlersout)  synthesising two words to create new meanings.

Musically ‘Shrines’ is more dub-steppy than ‘Visions’  highlighted by ‘Ungirthed’ -another Newspeak word, maybe. Which features the tried and trusted ‘whomp, whomp’ baseline and ‘yeah yeahs’ -if there’s a better description for those tropes I’m all ears btw.

alt-J – An Awesome Wave (Infectious Records)

Other band name considerations included FILMS & Daljit Dhaliwal

I’ve reviewed this record in depth here. Needless to say it’s easily one of 2012 best, a benchfellow to Django Django’s LP. ‘Tessellate’ is described rather marvellously by Sam Wolfson as being “an onomatopoeic puzzle of angular beats and pointed sexual advances.” It’s perfect coffee-shop faire, as a former barista myself I mean that as high praise.

I firmly believe alt-J’s music is a result of earlier works by bands such as Bloc Party Wild Beasts & Clap Your Hands Say Yeah. With Joe Newman’s marmite-like vocals being comparable to the latter two.

To conclude 2012 so far has been the year of geekrock, or post-dubstep electro , or dreampop, or the shit second album ….

Basically anything that wasn’t L*n* D*l R*y. I need more Pale Ale. All hail Tlaloc!

Alt-J – ‘An Awesome Wave’ (Infectious Music 2012)

June 29, 2012

Other name considerations included Daljit Dhaliwal and FILMS


Alt-J – interesting name? My initial reaction was an awkward combination of eye rolling, eyebrow raising, sighing and wry-smiling. I’ll give you a moment to digest. Moving on.


Alt-J are named after the Mac keyboard command for a triangle sign…Yeah, me neither. But nonetheless I had heard much about the BBC “Sound of the Year” nearly-rans (formerly featuring such musical luminaries as Adele & Jessie J :O). The band are four Leeds University arty-types who spent most of their recording time in Cambridge for this album.

And what an excellent album “An Awesome Wave” is.  My penny-dropping moment came during a particularly busy-spell at work with the album playing on repeat three successive times, I suddenly realised that I didn’t mind. You can appreciate that listening to an album thrice consecutively and dare I say enjoying it is quite something.

However on further listens my appreciation has appreciated. Musically the album is not ground-breaking but instead seems to piece together the current edges of emerging musical trends and knits the seams cohesively to create something new all together. The band have harnessed the wave of new sounds into something quite awesome. For example the almost dub-step-like baseline from “Fitzpleasure” with a hard rocking guitar sound, a similar effect is employed on “Something Good”.  alt-J have drawn Radiohead comparisons from some quarters; a dangerous step considering the band have only produced one very polished album thus far & given this year’s smattering of disappointing sophomore efforts e.g. Sleigh Bells & Miike Snow.

Their frequent undulating key changes are reminiscent of everyone’s favourite new-wave, goth, art-rockers, The Cure exemplified most perfectly in ‘Something Good.’

But labelling albums ‘The Next Something’ is the ball-park of the ever wide-eyed optimist. Alt-J are certainly influenced by bands such as Radiohead, Wild Beasts & Clap Your Hands Say Yeah which is excellent furrow to plough. And while we’re at it, their frequent undulating key changes are reminiscent of everyone’s favourite new-wave, goth, art-rockers, The Cure exemplified most perfectly in ‘Something Good.’

The feel of the record is something I haven’t fully enjoyed since 2009’s LPs from Wild Beasts (Two Dancers) and The xx. The band in fact recently toured with Wild Beasts. All three albums occupy the same imagined recording studio space in my head (not literally). An Awesome Wave achieves a stripped-back half-electronic half-folk effect- which is better than it sounds.  According to the band their music is “Trip Folk” which is as good a description as any.

An important facet of the band is singer Joe Newman’s marmite vocals, a gurning bluesy voice which only adds to the aura, similar to Hayden Thorpe’s. When they’re not falsetto or acapella .  The records lyrics are packed with knowing-references to works as diverse as Luc Besson’s masterpiece Leon to Maurice Sendak’s ‘Where the Wild Things Are.’

The stand out tracks for me are ‘Tessellate’ (a dancey number) and ‘Breezeblocks’ (a desperate plea to a fleeing lover). So give it a listen. Or don’t if you can’t be arsed. But you may as well. You clearly have to much time on your hands if you’ve just read these 500 words. You could’ve started The Great Gatsby…

Classic Albums #2: David Bowie – Low (RCA – 1977)

February 26, 2012

The three albums borne by David Bowie between 1977-79 (Low, Heroes & Lodger) are commonly referred to as “The Berlin Trilogy”, despite the fact that only Heroes was wholly recorded in Berlin and none of Lodger was. Stylistically ‘The Trilogy’ is not a million miles away from 1976’s Station to Station which was recorded in LA. Low was primarily recorded just outside Paris.

Nick Lowe reportedly titled his EP "Bowi" in response to Low, dropping the 'e'.

Bowie collaborated with producer Brian Eno throughout and Eno is often credited with producing the experimental, avant-garde sound espoused over the trinity. Though this has been called into question to some extent, given Bowie’s own predilection for experimentation throughout his career.

The working title for Low was “New Music Night and Day”, however Bowie opted for the title due to his “low” moods during the album’s writing and recording according to the albums producer, Tony Visconti.

“There’s oodles of pain in the Low album. That was my first attempt to kick cocaine, so that was an awful lot of pain. And I moved to Berlin to do it. I moved out of the coke center of the world into the smack center of the world. Thankfully, I didn’t have a feeling for smack, so it wasn’t a threat.” David Bowie

The albums style is comprised of shorter, fragmented tracks on the first side, perhaps a reflection of Bowie’s ruptured mental state at the time while the second side shoots off into space with longer, instrumental tracks. ‘Breaking Glass’ is one of the stand-out tracks with Carlos Alomar throwing his name into the ring as a genuine rival to Mick Ronson for Bowie’s greatest guitarist companion.

Although heavily influenced by Neu! and Kraftwerk, Low is widely regarded as being heavily ground breaking.  Often held by critics to be Bowie’s best album and received praise from publications such as Pitchfork who voted it the best album of the 1970’s .

Low is Bowie at his artistic zenith, a height which he never reached again. The lyrics are biographical, apocryphal and fiction all at once. The layered sound flits effortlessly from punk-rock, to rhythm & blues to progressive rock.  Though rejected as the OST for Bowie’s motion picture “The Man Who Fell to Earth” the record is a very real soundtrack to Bowie’s recovery from exhausting drug addiction.

Classic Albums #1: Pixies – Doolittle (4AD -1989)

August 26, 2011

The original title for the album was "Whore" however the band eventually opted for the more commercially viable "Doolittle" derived from a lyric in "Mr Grieves"

The second album by Pixies but the first one I listened to. It had stand-out hits that I’d come across elsewhere, such as “Monkey Gone to Heaven”, “Debaser”, “Here Comes Your Man” and even “Hey” which was used to particularly impressive effect in the otherwise forgettable “Zack and Miri Make a Porno.”

During my teenage years I was acutely aware of the albums persistent yet never ubiquitous presence as it was often cited as being an influence on many of the artists I listened to as a teen. Having been released in 1989 it had passed me by. A poll in the NME had ranked it as the second-greatest album of all time but I didn’t let that put me off & took time out my busy 16 year old’s schedule of not revising to give the album a listen.

I can’t remember my immediate thoughts on the album but I do know that it is one that I have constantly revisited since 2006. The album had a relatable quality though given that the themes of the album include: Surrealism, Biblical Violence, Torture and Death  that would paint a picture of me that is not entirely flattering or indeed accurate. Well perhaps except for the Surrealism which I am partial to.

Which segways seamlessly into the first track on the album ‘Debaser’: A crunching guitar driven opener to the album, the lyrics mystified me for years before I bothered to check them out. They’re actually referring to Luis Buñue and Salavador Dali’s surrealist short film Un chien andalou. Which due to the long-lasting appeal of the album I decided to check out. It’s a challenging piece with  a very famous scene of an eye being cut by a razor blade which is referenced  in the song ( “slicing up eyeballs” ). I have to say of the two I prefer the song tribute to the source material.

The album contains a strong underwater theme and it appears the band may have been influenced by surf rockers and contemporaries The Mermen particularly in the underwater reverb meet Hendrix sound of the guitars. Which is particularly apparent on “I Bleed” and more so on the Hawaiian sounding “Here comes your man”.

In researching this article I stumbled upon some information that the producer is from Liverpool. Gil Norton could be said to be somewhat responsible for the more commercial aspect of the album. Gil Norton has produced albums for Echo and the Bunnymen amongst others, which subconsciously must have penetrated my thoughts in my reverence for this album. The album possesses an insane manic energy and an uncontainable attitude that makes it justifiably a classic 22 years on.

Best tracks: All of them. In order.

The Man in the Grey Flannel Suit (1955) Sloan Wilson

April 26, 2011

The protagonist is often called simply ‘The Man in The Grey Flannel Suit’ in Sloan Wilson’s partly auto-biographical novel. However Tom Rath is a misunderstood character in his own right. In fact the name is ironic in that he is often very mild-mannered under the most stressful situations. Often lionised as being the archetypal square conservative, the epitome of conformist, of 1950’s America, The Man in The Grey Flannel Suit became a figure of fun, which is far away from what is actually depicted in the book.

Tom Rath is thought of as the typical advertising man of 1950’s America who would characteristically be ruthless, economically motivated and to some extent soulless. Yet this is not the case, though money is a key proponent of Tom’s life, a fact that he has to wrestle with throughout the novel, the reasons for it are justifiable. He does not want money for money’s sake but rather to offer a suitable life for his wife and children, to give them the best start in life. In fact Tom’s background is working for a charitable foundation and setting up a mental health committee which is far removed from the world of advertising and television.

Tom Rath is an army veteran of World War II and he has to wrestle inner turmoil throughout the novel, that he is praised for killing 17 men such as, that he had an affair with an Italian woman and the fact that he does not want to work endlessly as a cog of the consumerist trap.

On the face of it The Raths are the typical 1950’s suburban American couple; Betsy Rath stays at home with the 3 children whilst Tom commutes to his job in Manhattan however they both rail against their lot in life. Tom is unwilling to submit to his life of mediocre bread-winning in a constant rat race, he is disconnected from the world around him due to his experiences as a paratrooper in WW2. Yet he is also aware of the need to offer for his family. From a contemporary point of view we could deduce that perhaps Tom is traumatized by warfare or contrarily that he’s pining for the sense of exhilaration that he got from his experience either way the books is rife with existential quandaries of the meaning of life in a capitalist conservative America.

Tom Rath finds himself in the consumer age conundrum; he dare not plough the beatnik furrow of Kerouac and co. Yet he scorns the idea of conforming to consumerism, desiring the goods that everybody else wants. The idea of working harder, to get a better job so he can afford a newer car “a bigger house and a better brand of gin” is not an appealing one. As a result the first half of the novel is spent squirming between these two equally unacceptable options. This spiritual debate is punctuated quite literally by a question mark shaped crack in the wall of their modest house. The consequence of a heated argument in which an object was thrown and the subsequent botched repair job resulting in a quite obvious moral and spiritual indicator, which is never repaired until they move home and move up in the world.

A Confederacy of Dunces (1980) John Kennedy Toole

April 21, 2011

This is the first novel by John Kennedy Toole, which was published posthumously, the other being ‘Neon Bible.’ The title originates from the epigraph by Jonathan Swift: “When a true genius appears in the world, you may know him by this sign that the dunces are all in confederacy against him.” (Thoughts on Various Subjects, Moral and Diverting). The novel has a streak of auto-biography running through its core. Published 11 years after Toole’s suicide, due to the ongoing efforts of his mother. The novel became a cult classic and is now widely regarded as a canonical piece of Southern American Literature. That is to say the Deep South of USA and not South America. The novel is set in New Orleans and the style of the writing is highly reflective of this, the sentences are often written in the traditional Deep South dialect.

The novel is picaresque in that it depicts the adventures of the roguish anti-hero Ignatius J. Reilly. Picaresque novels usually depict a character of a low social-class who lives by his wits in a morally corrupt society. This style of novel has its genesis in Sixteenth Century Spain and there can certainly be a comparison drawn between Ignatius and Don Quixote.

Ignatius can be described as creative, lazy and eccentric. He has a searing wit and an acid tongue. In his foreword to the book, Walker Percy describes Ignatius as a “slob extraordinary, a mad Oliver Hardy, a fat Don Quixote, a perverse Thomas Aquinas rolled into one.”

The novel is an insight into the times, with McCarthyism at its very height, paranoia and suspicion of socialist sympathisers are prevalent, Ignatius’s mother even suspects him of being a Communist due to his outlandish actions throughout.

Ignatius hates the world he lives in and constantly feels alienated from it. He is a staunch critic of popular culture, in essence we can read Toole’s voice here giving damning indictment of his own times. Ignatius thinks of himself as an unappreciated genius, born into the wrong time and would have been much happier in medieval times and prefers their views on life, the Early Medieval philosopher Boethius in particular. Ignatius dedicated special importance to the workings of his pyloric valve and often laments Fortuna for spinning him on a downward spiral of bad luck which he endures throughout the novel.

Ignatius’s story is tied in an often over-laps into that of the other characters in the book. Set in the increasing debauched New Orleans of the 1960’s many of the characters are bums and trickster who would not look at of place in the works of William Burroughs or Chester Himes work. The main difference is those two authors are primarily associated with New York where this is a steadfast Southern piece of work.